An unopposed shot behind a line 15 feet from the basket, typically awarded to an offensive player who is fouled while in the act of shooting. Each free throw made is worth one point. A free throw is also known as a "foul shot".
There are many situations in which free throws can be awarded:
When a player is fouled while in the act of shooting, he is awarded two free throws if his two-point field goal attempt misses and three free throws if his three-point field goal attempt misses. If the field goal attempt is made when the player is fouled, he is awarded the points and one free throw.
In the NBA, a player who draws a foul, whether or not he is in a shooting or non-shooting situation, is awarded two free throws after the opposing team commits its fifth defensive or loose-ball foul in a quarter.
In the NCAA, a player who draws a foul, whether or not he is in a shooting or non-shooting situation, is awarded at least one free throw after the opposing team commits its seventh foul of the half. If a player is in a non-shooting situation, he is awarded a one-and-one, meaning that he must make the first free throw in order to be awarded a second one. After the opposing team commits its tenth foul of the half, the player who draws a foul is awarded two free throws, whether or not he is in a shooting or non-shooting situation.
Also in the NBA, when a team is charged with a technical foul or an illegal defense, the opposing team is awarded one free throw and possession. The opposing team can choose any player to shoot the free throw, but the player had to be on the court when the technical foul was charged.